anaerobe n : an organism (especially a bacterium) that does not require air or free oxygen to live
- Portuguese: anaeróbio
An anaerobic organism is any organism that does not require oxygen for growth and may even die in its presence.
Microaerophiles are organisms that may use oxygen, but only at low concentrations (low micromolar range); their growth is inhibited by normal oxygen concentrations (approximately 200 micromolar). Nanaerobes are organisms that cannot grow in the presence of micromolar concentrations of oxygen, but can grow with and benefit from lower (nanomolar) concentrations of oxygen.
Obligate anaerobes may use fermentation or anaerobic respiration. In the presence of oxygen, facultative anaerobes use aerobic respiration; without oxygen some of them ferment, some use anaerobic respiration. Aerotolerant organisms are strictly fermentative. Microaerophiles carry out aerobic respiration, and some of them can also do anaerobic respiration.
There are many chemical equations for anaerobic fermentative reactions.
Fermentative anaerobesFermentative anaerobic organisms mostly use the lactic acid fermentation pathway:
The energy released in this equation is approximately 150 kJ per mol, which is conserved in regenerating two ATP from ADP per glucose. This is only 5% of the energy per sugar molecule that the typical aerobic reaction generates.
Plants and fungi (e.g., yeasts) generally use alcohol (ethanol) fermentation when oxygen becomes limiting:
- C6H12O6 + 2 ADP + 2 phosphate → 2 C2H5OH + 2 CO2 + 2 ATP
The energy released is about 180 kJ per mol, which is conserved in regenerating two ATP from ADP per glucose.
Anaerobic bacteria and archaea use these and many other fermentative pathways, e.g., propionic acid fermentation, butyric acid fermentation, solvent fermentation, mixed acid fermentation, butanediol fermentation, Stickland fermentation, acetogenesis or methanogenesis.
Some anaerobic bacteria produce toxins (e.g., tetanus or botulinum toxins) that are highly dangerous to higher organisms, including humans.
Obligate (strict) anaerobes die in presence of oxygen due to the absence of the enzymes superoxide dismutase and catalase which would convert the lethal superoxide formed in their cells due to the presence of oxygen. Instead of oxygen, obligate anaerobes use alternate electron acceptors for respiration such as sulfate, nitrate, iron, manganese, mercury, and carbon monoxide. The energy yield of these respiratory processes is less than oxygen respiration, and not all of these electron acceptors are created equally. The most favorable (after oxygen) is sulfate. In marine sediments this leads to large amounts of sulfate reduction, which most of us are familiar with as the rotten egg smell and black material that can be found just a few centimeters below the sediment surface. Next in line is nitrate, then the metal ions, and lastly a zone of methanogenesis is found. Very little energy is obtained from methanogeneis and vast amounts of substrate need to be turned over to make a living.
Bacteroides and Clostridium species are examples of non-spore forming and spore-forming strict anaerobes, respectively.
Given that normal microbial culturing is undertaken in an aerobic environment, the culturing of anaerobes poses a problem. To overcome this, a number of techniques are employed by microbiologists. The GasPak System is an isolated container which achieves an anaerobic environment by the reaction of water with sodium borohydride and sodium bicarbonate tablets to produce hydrogen gas and carbon dioxide. Hydrogen then reacts with oxygen gas on a palladium catalyst to produce more water, thereby removing oxygen gas.
anaerobe in Catalan: Anaeròbic
anaerobe in Czech: Anaerobní
anaerobe in Danish: Anaerob
anaerobe in German: Anaerobie
anaerobe in Spanish: Organismo anaerobio
anaerobe in Esperanto: Anaeroba organismo
anaerobe in Basque: Anaerobio
anaerobe in French: Anaérobie
anaerobe in Indonesian: Organisme anaerobik
anaerobe in Italian: Anaerobiosi
anaerobe in Hebrew: אל-אווירני
anaerobe in Macedonian: Анаероб
anaerobe in Dutch: Anaeroob
anaerobe in Japanese: 嫌気性生物
anaerobe in Norwegian: Anaerob
anaerobe in Polish: Anaerob
anaerobe in Portuguese: Anaerobiose
anaerobe in Russian: Анаэробные организмы
anaerobe in Simple English: Anaerobic organism
anaerobe in Finnish: Anaerobinen eliö
anaerobe in Swedish: Anaerob
anaerobe in Ukrainian: Анаероби
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